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In response Britain invaded the US, but the pre-war boundaries were reaffirmed by the Treaty of Ghentensuring Canada's future would be separate from that of the United States. The following year the British government dissolved the Company and assumed direct control over India through the Government of India Actestablishing the British Rajwhere an appointed governor-general administered India and Queen Victoria was crowned the Empress of India.

The loss of such a large portion of British Americaat the time Britain's most populous overseas possession, is seen by some historians as the event defining the transition between the "first" and "second" empires, [69] in which Britain shifted its attention away from the Americas to Asia, the Pacific and later Africa.

Napoleon threatened to invade Britain itself, just as his armies had overrun many countries of continental Europe.

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French ports were blockaded by the Royal Navywhich won a decisive victory over a Franco-Spanish fleet at Trafalgar in Access to the Archive is by appointment only. A joint force of British and Egyptian troops defeated the Mahdist Army inand rebuffed an attempted French invasion at Fashoda in The signing of the Treaty of Paris had important consequences for the future of the British Empire.

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Until the abolition of its slave trade inBritain was responsible for the transportation of 3. By this time, Spain had become the dominant power in the Americas and was exploring the Pacific Ocean, Portugal had established trading posts and forts from the coasts of Africa and Brazil to China, and France had begun to settle the Saint Lawrence River area, later to become New France.

A deal between the two nations left the spice trade of the East Indies archipelago to the Netherlands and the textiles industry of India to England, but textiles soon overtook spices in terms of profitability, and byin terms of sales, the British company had overtaken the Dutch.

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The following year, inthe United States declared independence. Abolitionism in the United Kingdom Sugar plantation in the British colony of AntiguaWith the advent of the Industrial Revolutiongoods produced by slavery became less important to the British economy. Cabot led another voyage to the Americas the following year but nothing was ever heard of his ships again.

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The American colonies were less financially successful than those of the Caribbean, but had large areas of good agricultural land and attracted far larger numbers of English emigrants who preferred their temperate climates. Bythe British Empire was linked together by a network of telegraph cables, called the All Red Line.

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English overseas possessions InElizabeth I granted a patent to Humphrey Gilbert for discovery and overseas exploration. The loss of the American colonies marked the end of the "first British Empire". American independence was acknowledged at the Peace of Paris in Eventually the Boers established two republics which had a longer lifespan: The East India Company had failed to implement any coordinated policy to deal with the famines during its British library dating of rule.

Britain's imperial century — See also: There, they competed for trade supremacy with Portugal and with each other. The Napoleonic Wars were therefore ones in which Britain invested large amounts of capital and resources to win. HelenaCeylon and the territories administered by the East India Company, though these exclusions were later repealed.

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Although this did not grant outright control of the strategic waterway, it did give Britain leverage. This trade, illegal since it was outlawed by the Qing dynasty inhelped reverse the trade imbalances resulting from the British imports of tea, which saw large outflows of silver from Britain to China.

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This effort was rebuffed and later, as the Anglo-Spanish Wars intensified, Elizabeth I gave her blessing to further privateering raids against Spanish ports in the Americas and shipping that British library dating returning across the Atlantic, laden with treasure from the New World.

Gilbert did not survive the return journey to England, and was succeeded by his half-brother, Walter RaleighBritish library dating was granted his own patent by Elizabeth in Online resources Museum libraries and archives The Museum collection is available to researchers of all different levels through its galleries, libraries and study rooms, as well as online.

Initially the Canal was opposed by the British; [] but British library dating opened, its strategic value was quickly recognised and became the "jugular vein of the Empire".

The path to independence for the white colonies of the British Empire began with the Durham Report. The Province of Carolina was founded in InSierra Leone Colony and Protectorate was designated an official British colony for freed slaves. The Great Game British cavalry charging against Russian forces at Balaclava in During the 19th century, Britain and the Russian Empire vied to fill the power vacuums that had been left by the declining Ottoman EmpireQajar dynasty and Qing Dynasty.

France was finally defeated by a coalition of European armies in American Revolution During the s and early s, relations between the Thirteen Colonies and Britain became increasingly strained, primarily because of resentment of the British Parliament's attempts to govern and tax American colonists without their consent.

Since Dinosaur fossil radiocarbon dating, transportation to the American colonies had been a penalty for various offences in Britain, with approximately one thousand convicts transported per year across the Atlantic.

Gibraltar became a critical naval base and allowed Britain to control the Atlantic entry and exit point to the Mediterranean.